A Patient’s Guide to Dental Implant Treatment in Malaysia

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The Anatomy (Parts) of a Dental Implant
The Anatomy (Parts) of a Dental Implant


Fixed implant‐supported bridge
Fixed implant‐supported bridge
Fixed zirconia implant‐supported bridge
Fixed zirconia implant‐supported bridge

Considering Dental Implants?

Dental Implant Information
In the last decade dental implants have become widely used in Malaysia and are usually the treatment of choice for a missing tooth.

1. What is a dental implant?

A dental implant is an artificial replacement for a tooth root, usually made from titanium. There are many different implant systems available and when competently used they all deliver a highly reliable form of treatment. The main aim during the placement of any implant is to achieve immediate close contact with the surrounding bone. Over time further growth of bone onto the implant surface enhances the stability of the implant. In order to support replacement teeth, dental implants normally have some form of internal screw thread or post space that allows a variety of components to be fitted. Once fitted, these components provide the foundation for long term support of crowns, bridges or dentures.

In Malaysia, dental bridges are more commonly done to replace missing tooth compared to dental implants
In Malaysia, dental bridges are more commonly done to replace missing tooth compared to dental implants

2. Who is suitable for dental implants?

Dental implants are suitable for most adults with good general health. They can only be used once the jawbone has stopped growing and so generally are not used with younger patients. Habits such as heavy drinking or smoking can increase the number of problems associated with initial healing and thereafter may be bad for the long-term health of gum and bone surrounding each implant. Some dentists will decline to place implants if smoking cannot be reduced or given up altogether.

However, each case is different and if you do have any medical problems then speak to your doctor or dentist prior to starting any treatment – it is only in some circumstances that health problems prevent the use of dental implants altogether.

Dental implants are suitable for most adults with good general health


Dental Implant Malaysia – Tanam Gigi . 种牙 Dentist3™ Clinics Uses Quality Dental Implants Imported from Korea Dental Implant
Careline : +60132348421
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Dental implant treatment Link :

3. How will you know if you are suitable for implants?

At your initial consultation the dentist will assess the feasibility of providing implant treatment. You will be expected to answer detailed questions concerning your medical history and there will be a complete examination of your mouth and remaining teeth to discover the nature and extent of any current dental problems. Usually X-rays will be taken and models of the teeth prepared so that these can be examined after your visit. These x-rays and models will be used to determine the optimal position for an implant, how many implants can be placed in the gap and the quality and volume of bone that is available.

Establishing good basic dental health is a key stage in any treatment plan. At this first appointment you should be made aware of which problems are urgent, and what treatment is required to stabilise any gum- or tooth-related problems. It would be reasonable to expect a verbal outline of how your particular implant treatment might be approached.

4. Do you need to have a healthy mouth?

When you first enquire about dental implants it is often in response to an awareness of ongoing dental problems or the recent loss of teeth. The cause of these problems will need to be understood and treated before undertaking implant treatment. If you are aware of bad breath, loose teeth, or have noticed excessive bleeding, particularly when your teeth are cleaned professionally, you may have gum problems. Gum disease (periodontal disease) is a major cause of bone loss, and with reduced bone dental implant treatment can be more complicated but not impossible.

Missing Tooth
Missing Tooth
The dental implant vs a three‐unit bridge
The dental implant vs a three‐unit bridge

5. How long does treatment take?

For routine cases, from the time of implant placement to the time of placing the first tooth/teeth, treatment times can vary between six weeks and six months. The availability of better quality bone can be used to decrease treatment time, whilst more time and care must be taken with poorer bone, which can therefore extend treatment times beyond six months.

6. What should you know before you start treatment?

It is accepted practice that you should be given a written summary of your treatment planning discussion(s), highlighting your current dental situation and any alternatives there are to dental implants. This summary should also include an overview of the anticipated treatment stages and give you some idea of how long treatment is likely to take, how many implants are required and what the fees are expected to be. There may well be other issues specific to your case and these would be dealt with accordingly.

Implant & Abutment
Implant & Abutment

7. How long will the implants last?

Once the implants and surrounding soft tissues are seen to be healthy and the new teeth comfortable and correctly adjusted, it is the quality of your personal attention to oral hygiene and willingness to attend regular maintenance reviews that will have most influence on how long they will last. When poorly cared for, implants will develop a covering of hard and soft deposits (calculus and plaque), which is very similar to that found on neglected natural teeth. Untreated, these deposits can lead to gum infection, bleeding, soreness and general discomfort. It could probably be said that implants will last as long as natural teeth. Well-maintained implants placed into adequate bone can be expected to last for many years and possibly for your lifetime. However, just as you would expect conventional crowns, bridges and fillings to need occasional repairs or replacements, your implant-supported teeth may also have similar maintenance requirements over the years.

Implant Supported bridge - with the "screw-holes" not covered yet
Implant Supported bridge – with the “screw-holes” not covered yet

8. How many teeth can be supported by implants?

Dental implants can be used to replace one or several missing teeth. All the common forms of tooth replacement, such as bridges or dentures can be supported by dental implants. If you are missing just one natural tooth, then one implant is normally all that will be needed to provide a replacement. However, larger spaces created by two, three or more missing teeth do not necessarily need one implant per tooth; the exact number of implants will depend upon the quality and volume of bone at each potential implant site. Patients who have a habit of clenching or grinding (bruxing) their teeth may be at risk of overloading their implants. For most people bruxism occurs during sleep, which is why they are generally not aware of it. Heavily worn or flattened teeth, chipped enamel edges and/or regularly breaking pieces of heavily filled teeth are the most common clinical signs of bruxism. The effects of bruxism need to be considered during treatment planning and can be compensated for by placing additional implants, selecting appropriate restorative materials and providing a night time bite guard to protect the new teeth. This will be discussed in your initial consultation and detailed in your treatment plan.

Crown centred on the abutment
Crown centred on the abutment

9. An overview of the implant process

Implant treatment normally involves several stages that take place over a period of time from three to nine months. Although there are various implant treatment methods, a typical process often includes:

  • Assessment and treatment planning:

At initial consultation, following full discussion of all possible alternatives, the dentist will assess the feasibility of providing implant treatment. X-rays will be taken and models of the teeth prepared. A written treatment plan will then be formulated detailing the sequence of treatment and associated costs.

  • Implant placement : 

Implant placement is a relatively simple minor surgical procedure that can be performed under sterile conditions in a dental surgery. The treatment is performed under local anesthesia with sedation if required. If, during assessment, the underlying bone is deemed deficient, a number of options are available for bone regeneration. Bone regeneration is carried out prior to or at the same time as implant placement depending on requirements.

  • Integration period:

Implants can take from six weeks to six months to fuse with the patient’s bone. During this integration period, temporary dentures or bridgework can be worn as appropriate. In some cases, temporary teeth can be fixed to the implants while they integrate in a process known as ‘immediate loading.

  • The restorative phase:

Once integrated, the implants can be brought into function with a variety of new teeth options (definitive restorations) ranging from a single crown, small or large bridge or a removable overdenture. A dental technician who works closely with the dental surgeon constructs these definitive restorations.

The basic implant, abutment, and prosthesis
The basic implant, abutment, and prosthesis
  • Maintenance:

Following completion of implant treatment, the patient must regularly and thoroughly clean the new teeth (restorations) as instructed by their dentist. A dental hygienist may also advise on care and maintenance of the restorations and natural teeth. Regular visits to your dentist are essential so that the health of the soft tissue, bone levels and the integrity of the restoration can be reviewed.

Before Cementing the Crown
Before Cementing the Crown
After cementing the Crown
After cementing the Crown

10. How do you know if you have enough bone for dental implants?

Routine dental x-rays show large amounts of detail, but in only two dimensions. From these views it is generally possible to judge the height of bone available for implant placement; however, more advanced imaging techniques are sometimes needed to determine the equally important bone width. Dental CBCT Scans – there are now a number of advanced -ray techniques that allow your jawbone to be looked at in all three dimensions. The most accurate and widely available is known as the CBCT (cone beam computed tomography) scan. Images obtained by CBCT scanning will normally be able to show all of the information required about your bone, including quantity and quality, but most importantlypthe presence of anatomical structures that must be avoided.

Posterior implant bridgework
Posterior implant bridgework

11. What can cause bone loss?

Whenever a tooth is lost or extracted a considerable amount of the bone that once surrounded the remaining root may disappear. This loss can be particularly rapid during the first few months and is described as ‘bone resorption’. Although the rate and amount of bone resorption is highly variable between individuals, it will always occur to some extent, unless specific care is taken to reduce its effects. • Many patients report that after a while their dentures become progressively looser and do not fit as well as they once did. Initially the increased rate of bone loss following extractions is responsible for the observed deterioration of denture fit. Over the long term it is the direct effect of chewing forces that causes slow deterioration of the supporting bone. Therefore the longer dentures are worn, the less bone is available for dental implants.

12. What anatomical structures must be avoided during the placement of dental mplants?

• In the upper jaw, provided the implants stay within the bone that once supported your own teeth there are really no important risk areas. If you have missing upper back teeth then the shape and location of the region above the roots (maxillary sinus) can be shown to you. The maxillary sinuses can be seen on most x-rays and are therefore readily avoided.


• In the lower jaw the most important anatomical structure to be avoided is the ‘inferior dental nerve’. This nerve runs from the area behind the wisdom teeth, passes under the back teeth (molars) and emerges onto the skin of the face in the region where your middle teeth (premolars) are or used to be. This is why a normal dental anesthetic produces a numb lip even when the needle was placed right at the back of the mouth. If this nerve is disturbed or damaged during the placement of dental implants it can lead to temporary or even permanent numbness or altered sensation. This is a rare but important complication.

CBCT scans are generally the best means for identifying the location of this nerve and allow implants to be placed with considerable confidence; however, these are only sometimes available within a normal dental surgery environment. It may therefore require a visit to a suitable hospital where the scan is generally completed within a few minutes. Whilst CBCT scans are more expensive than routine dental ×-rays, the information they provide is often invaluable for complex treatment planning and knowing where important anatomical structures are located. If a tooth is inadvertently damaged by the placement of a nearby implant, any resulting problems can generally be resolved by root canal treatment in which the nerve of the natural tooth is removed.

Dental Implant Malaysia – Tanam Gigi . 种牙 Dentist3™ Clinics Uses Quality Dental Implants Imported from Korea Dental Implant
Careline : +60132348421
WhatsApp :
Dental implant treatment Link :

13. Can dental implants preserve bone?

This is one of the most important features of dental implants. Once in place and supporting teeth, everyday functional forces (eating, smiling, talking) stimulate the surrounding bone, which responds by becoming stronger and denser. Like all things there are limits as to how much work an implant can do. Your treatment provider will be able to discuss this in more detail as it relates to your individual case.

The single dental implant, abutment, and crown
The single dental implant, abutment, and crown

14. Can you wear replacement teeth whilst going through implant treatment?

If the teeth being replaced by dental implants are in a clearly visible part of your mouth you will most likely want to have some teeth present whilst the treatment is underway. There are a number of ways that this can be done, ranging from simple plastic dentures to removable bridges. If replacement teeth are used during treatment stages it is important that they do not apply uncontrolled pressure to the underlying implants. You should expect to make a number of visits after the implants are placed and before they are brought into function, for small adjustments to any temporary teeth. They may not look as aesthetically pleasing as your final restoration.

15. Can dental implants be placed next to natural teeth?

Dental implants are routinely placed beside natural teeth and this is generally very safe to do. The only exception to this would be if the natural root was very curved or tilted unfavourably in the proposed path of the implant. This could cause the root to be damaged by the implant; however, this can usually be avoided by careful pre-operative planning.

Dental implant surgery
Dental implant surgery

16. Are the new teeth joined together?

When multiple implants are placed, they are routinely joined together in the same way that a bridge supported by natural teeth would be designed. When implant-supported teeth are linked together, they are mechanically stronger than the individual parts.

If enough implants are available, it is often easier and just as effective to make everal smaller sections of bridgework each supporting a few teeth. The overall effect in the mouth is the same and if you ever need to repair one of the small sections, this can be much easier to do.

Again the bone quality and the number and position of the implants will largely determine which option is most suitable for you.

17. Is it uncomfortable when implants are being placed?

Most patients will be familiar with the dental anaesthetics used for routine dentistry and will know how effective they are. Implants are placed using the same anaesthesia. Depending upon the complexity of your case, the operation might take anything from 30 minutes for a single implant, to several hours for complex bone grafting and multiple implant placements. implant and/or bone graft is to be placed you can expect some minor swelling and occasionally bruising afterwards.

For most patients, any of the over-the- counter/basic painkillers that you might take for a headache will be adequate for a few days. If you experience more discomfort than this, contact your treatment provider who can prescribe a stronger medication. Healing is generally straightforward and any stitches are removed a week to ten days later. During the first few days you should report any unexpected levels of pain or swelling so that they can be assessed.

If in doubt always ask for advice, as early detection of a problem will often lead to a simpler solution. You may also be asked to take a course of antibiotics and to follow some simple procedures such as rinsing with salt water or an antiseptic mouth rinse. It is important that you carry out these instructions.

Congenitally missing tooth replaced with dental implant
Congenitally missing tooth replaced with dental implant

18. If the implant surgery is going to take a long time can you have sedation or a general anaesthetic?

Although it is quite straightforward to provide good pain control during surgery, most people will be quite anxious. There is no need to suffer in silence, as there are several very effective means by which you can achieve a relaxed state.

• Relative analgesia – Some operators may recommend a procedure called relative analgesia’ where you inhale a mixture of nitrous oxide (laughing gas) and oxygen through a small mask placed over your nose. This gas mixture is breathed for the duration of the treatment stage.

• Oral sedation – Another simple way to aid relaxation is to be given a dose of a short- acting medication such as Temazepam (normally used to help with sleep difficulties). This will reduce anxiety for most patients and provides a very good effect for uncomplicated surgical stages taking less than an hour.

• Conscious sedation – For treatment of greater complexity it may be suggested that you have a more controlled way of keeping relaxed and comfortable during the surgical stages. This is known as a ‘conscious sedation’ and is distinctly different from a general anaesthetic, because you remain alert enough to respond to simple instructions that may be helpful to the surgeon – however, you will remember almost nothing about the treatment stage. It is particularly beneficial for procedures taking more than an hour where a hospital admission is not required – this is probably true for the majority of treatments related to dental implants. For a routine ‘conscious sedation’ a carefully controlled amount of sedative is delivered through a vein in your arm or hand for as long as the treatment takes. It is a very safe procedure during which your heart rate and oxygen levels are monitored throughout by an anaesthetist. With conscious sedation, a normal dental local anesthetic is injected around the proposed implant sites. Most people do not remember this stage because the sedation has already taken effect by the time the dental anaesthetic is given. For procedures involving oral or conscious sedation you may be asked not to eat or drink for at least four hours prior to the surgery and you will need to arrange for an adult to take you home. You will also be advised not to operate any machinery for at least 24 to 36 hours afterwards. 

– General anaesthetics require a hospital admission and are mainly, but not exclusively, used for complex cases such as where bone is being grafted from the hip to the mouth, or where large numbers of implants are being placed at the same time. Most patients will not require a general anesthetic since conscious sedation is much safer and has fewer post-operative complications.

Screw retained crowns with access holes before being sealed with tooth-coloured fillings
Screw retained crowns with access holes before being sealed with tooth-coloured fillings

19. If you do not have enough bone what can be done?

So far we have covered the building blocks that are part of routine implant placement. This has included the initial examination and diagnosis, special x-rays such as CBCT scans, sedation during surgery and what to expect after the implants have been placed. However, for some people, bone loss after the removal or loss of teeth leaves them without enough to secure an implant. There are procedures that can be done if this is the case:

• In the upper jaw above the back teeth, it is possible to increase the height of bone available by creating new bone in the sinus. This procedure is called a ‘sinus augmentation’. A skilled surgeon can deliver highly predictable results in this location and without the general success of this technique many patients would be unable to have implants in a part of the mouth where teeth are so commonly missing.

Schematic diagram of a sinus lift.
Schematic diagram of a sinus lift.

• There are many ways in which bone can be added; however, one simple concept is to take a piece of bone from somewhere else and secure it as an ‘onlay graft’ to a deficient area. The new piece of bone will slowly join to the underlying region and when healed and mature, an implant can be placed in a more favourable position.

Narrow bone ridge requiring Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) prior to implant placement
Narrow bone ridge requiring Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) prior to implant placement

20. Where can you get extra bone from?

Bone can be harvested from a number of sources but usually from behind the back teeth in the lower jaw or from the chin. Sometimes it is taken from the hip or shinbone (tibia). When you use your own bone to create new bone in another area of the mouth you will have to contend with the discomfort created by the donor site as well as the surgical site. Many people feel this is well worth any additional discomfort as your own bone is normally considered the ‘gold standard’!

Alternatives to your own bone for grafting

For those who would prefer an easier but slightly slower, solution there are other sources of bone such as bovine (derived from cow), porcine (derived from pig) or synthetic materials that have been specially prepared to make them safe for use in humans. All of these materials, including your own bone, simply provide a scaffold into which new bone will grow in order to be ready to receive dental implants a few months later. New bone can take anything from 3 to 12 months before it is ready to receive dental implants. Do not be in a hurry to move to the next stage. If you need a large volume of bone it will take longer to mature than a small amount.

Each surgeon will have his or her preferred way of creating new bone. Many of them will also use a supplementary technique called ‘guided tissue regeneration’. Using this technique, slow-moving bone cells are given time to fill a space by placing a barrier material between them and the fast moving cells of the soft tissues lining the mouth. This is a ‘resorbable barrier’ that will disappear naturally a few months after it has done its work.

21. Does bone grafting affect the length of treatment?

If you need bone grafting, it will almost invariably increase the length of time the outcome of the implant(s) placed. When used in the front of the mouth it can also allow for creation of much better aesthetics. Bone grafting requires a considerably higher degree of skill from the operator and is often more complex to perform than the placement of the implant itself. In certain situations some operators will recommend combining the implant placement with bone grafting and the placement of a barrier membrane all at the same time. This considerably reduces treatment time and can produce results that are difficult to achieve any other way. However, many surgeons will still prefer to carry out bone grafting as a distinct stage, so that the implants are only placed when the bone grafting has been successful. Whatever method is chosen to improve the bone quantity the time, effort and expense is generally well worthwhile.

22. How do you look after the implants?

It is important that you maintain good oral hygiene with your implants to improve their life span. Cleaning your implants is not difficult. For most implant-supported teeth you will be able to clean around each supporting implant by brushing and flossing in just the same way that you would around natural teeth and tooth-supported bridges. In some areas special floss, interdental toothbrushes and other cleaning aids may be needed to maintain good oral hygiene.

Cleaning your implants is not difficult

It is reasonable to expect some of the daily hygiene procedures to be a little more complex than around your original teeth and equally expect to spend more time than you may have done in the past if you wish to maintain optimum implant health. For the first few months the implants are in place your dentist mav ask that you are seen more frequently; however, once they are satisfied your treatment is performing as planned, ongoing care will be similar to any patient with natural teeth.


23. What can you do if an implant does not work?

In general the success rate for dental. implants is around 95%; however, in practice this could mean that 1 in 20 of the. implants placed might not survive in the long-term. It is a good idea to discuss how your treatment plan might be affected by the loss of an implant. There are many reasons why a dental implant can fail including smoking, oral hygiene, and systemic disease. In these particular risk groups, the failure rate could be expected to be much higher. If an implant does not integrate well with the surrounding bone it will eventually become loose and no longer be able to support replacement teeth. Commonly the failing implant causes no discomfort and if there are enough implants remaining, it may not be necessary to replace it at all. It is important that you discuss the possible complications that may occur with your dentist.

In general the success rate for dental implants is around 95%

Suturing a Dental Implant (one-stage Implant)
Suturing a Dental Implant (one-stage Implant)

24. Different implant procedures

  • One-stage implant – The implant is placed into a new, healing or healed extraction site (where the original tooth has been removed from) and is visible above the gum immediately after placement. The advantage of this method is that a second surgical stage is not necessary to expose the implant. The implant will not normally be ready to support a tooth for several weeks or months.
  • Two-stage implant – The implant is placed into a new, healing or healed extraction site and then covered by a layer of gum so that it cannot be seen – this is the first stage. At the second stage some weeks or months later, the implant is uncovered and components added bringing it above the gum ready to begin placing a new tooth.
  • Same day implants – This technique is most often used to treat the lower jaw and requires considerable planning before the actual day of surgery. Several implants are installed and a few hours later a complete arch of temporary or permanent teeth can be fixed in place. If temporary teeth are used these will normally be replaced with a permanent bridge after a suitable healing interval. Not all patients are suitable for this style of treatment. 
  • Immediate implant – For this technique a tooth is removed and an implant placed immediately into the extraction site. Depending upon the local bone and soft tissue conditions, the implant surgery may be a one- or two-stage procedure. Not all patients are suitable for this approach. Immediate implant and early loading This is distinctly different from an immediate implant placement. It is effectively a one-stage technique where the implant is placed into a new, healing or healed extraction site and is fitted with a new tooth at the same appointment. This first tooth will normally be kept out of direct contact with opposing teeth for a healing period of more than three months, after which it is finally restored. This technique tends to be more common in regions of the mouth where optimum aesthetics are important. Again, not all patients are suitable for this approach.

Dental Implant Malaysia – Tanam Gigi . 种牙 Dentist3™ Clinics Uses Quality Dental Implants Imported from Korea Dental Implant
Careline : +60132348421
WhatsApp :
Dental implant treatment Link :

components of an implant
components of an implant

25. Frequently Asked Questions

Will I be able to eat what I like afterward?
Once completed, patients should be able to eat a normal, healthy diet with little or no difficulty.

What costs are involved in implant treatments in Malaysia?
The cost can vary, depending on the degree and extent of treatment required. The full cost is therefore explained and confirmed in a written treatment plan from your implant dentist. Based on a casual survey from Dentistsnearby.com team, a single unit dental implant costs ranges from RM 5500 – 9000 . Bone Grafting or Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) Treatment Normally Costs from RM 2000 – 3000 . Lateral or crestal approach sinus lifting treatment costs from RM 2000 – 3000 . “All-On-Four” implant supported dentures normally costs between RM 25000 to 30000

How long will it take?
Implant treatment usually requires a number of appointments over a period of months. In some cases, however, implant work can be completed in a much shorter period.

How long will it last?
Once treatment is completed, a regular routine of dental hygiene and regular check-ups should ensure that implants last for many years.

Am I too old for implant treatment?
There is no upper age limit for patients to undergo implant treatment, provided they continue to enjoy reasonably good health.

Is the treatment painful?
Patients are often surprised at how little discomfort they experience during and after implant procedures.

Frequently Asked Questions about dental implants
Frequently Asked Questions about dental implants


An abutment is the component which
attaches the implant to the definitive tooth

Barrier membrane
A membrane which is draped over a bone
defect or bone graft to allow bone healing
to occur withoutithe ingress of soft tissue
which could compromise the healing

Bone grafting/regeneration
This is the placement of either natural
or synthetic bone material to an area
where natural bone is deficient. This
may be performed at the time of implant
placement, or as a separate procedure prior
to implant placement.

Bone resorption
Bone resorption is the loss of height and/or
width of bone in either upper or lower jaws.
This process occurs throughout life, but is
accelerated in locations where tooth loss
has occurred.

A bridge is a method of replacing a missing
tooth or teeth by means of artificial teeth
attached to other natural teeth or dental
implants. Bridges may be glued in place
(adhesive bridges) or supported by crown
preparations (conventional bridges),
and may be constructed of a variety of

The clenching or grinding of teeth at times
other than eating.

Hard deposits around teeth sometimes
referred to as tartar. Calculus is the result
of calcification of plaque around teeth, and
can be prevented by rigorous attention to
good oral hygiene measures. Once calculus
has formed, it is difficult to remove, and in
most cases this would involve the services
of a dental therapist or hygienist.

Complete arch
A complete arch is referring to the teeth of
the whole of the upper jaw or lower jaw.

An appointment with the dentist to
discuss possible treatment options. The
appointment may include an examination,
X-rays and photographs along with
open discussion and explanation where

A crown is any form of restoration which
covers the entire exposed surface of a
tooth, and can be made of a variety of
materials, including porcelain, porcelain
bonded to metal and gold. Most crowns
in visible areas of the mouth are white in

CBCT scan
Cone Beam Computed Tomography scan is
an advanced ×-ray technique that produces
three-dimensional images of the jawbone.
These images may only be viewed on a
computer screen, since they are three
dimensional in nature.

Definitive restorations
The definitive restoration is the term
used for the final implant-supported
crown, bridge or denture in the course
of treatment. The restoration will need
periodic maintenance work and may need
to be replaced.

Dental anaesthetics
Anesthesia means without sensation
(Greek), and this includes pain. Today most
dental anaesthetics are by means of a
simple injection into the area being worked
on. More rarely procedures may be carried
out whilst you are asleep; this is referred to
as a general anaesthetic.

Dental implant
A dental implant is a man made “tooth
root”. Most implants are made of metal,
titanium or titanium alloys being the most
common. Implants are placed into jawbones
surgically, and may ultimately support
crowns and bridges or be used to stabilise

Dentures are removable false teeth
custom-made to each patient. They are
usually made from acrylic or a combination
of acrylic and cobalt chromium.

A dental extraction is the removal of teeth.
Extraction site
The space/gap remaining after tooth

Functioning implants
A functioning implant is an implant or
implants which bears some kind of dental
restoration, be it a crown, bridge or denture,
and is capable of chewing.

Guided tissue regeneration
A procedure designed to enhance soft
tissue (gum) healing, and may be used to
improve the cosmetic effects around teeth
or crowns.

Gum disease
Disease of the soft tissues around teeth.
Superficial gum inflammation is generally
referred to as gingivitis; it is a response to
accumulation of plaque, and in most cases
may be resolved by rigorous oral hygiene

Periodontal disease
Unchecked gingivitis may progress with
time to a more serious form of gum disease
known as periodontitis; this involves loss of
bone, and may compromise the survival of
a tooth or teeth.

Immediate loading
Providing a temporary crown or bridge
simultaneous with the placement of the
implant. This treatment is not suitable for
all patients.

Inferior dental nerve
Sometimes referred to as the inferior
alveolar nerve, this runs within a bony
canal in the lower jaw, and supplies
sensation to the lower teeth, before
emerging from bone as the mental nerve
which supplies sensation to the lower lip.

This means to bond or fuse together.

Interdental toothbrushes
An interdental small brush, often just
one tuft of “bristles”. This is particularly
useful for cleaning between teeth, and
around implants, and may be used as an
alternative to floss.

Maxillary sinus
A hollow air filled space situated above
the upper premolar teeth. This varies in
size from individual to individual, and gets
larger throughout life.

The last three upper and lower teeth on
both sides of the mouth.

Onlay grafting
Where bone is taken from elsewhere in
the body, i.e. hip (rarely), chin or behind
the molars, and secured to the area where
bone is deficient.

Osseointegration is where the implant and
bone bond or fuse together, and typically
takes several weeks to months.

Plaque is a soft sticky, colourless film of
bacteria that constantly forms on teeth
and gums and can harden into calculus if
not removed daily by effective oral hygiene
such as brushing, flossing etc.

The two teeth located in front of the
molars on both sides of the mouth.

Reline procedure
Reline procedure is where a soft or hard
material is used to correct the fitting
surface of a denture after an extraction or

Removable overdenture
A denture which is supported by implants
but is removable by the patient for cleaning

The restoration is a filling, crown, bridge or
denture. It effectively restores the tooth/
teeth for functional use.

Restorative phase/appointment
This follows the surgical phase of the
treatment regime, usually after a suitable
degree of healing, typically a few weeks
to a few months. In most cases this will
involve the taking of impressions thus
allowing the technician(s) to fabricate the
definitive restoration.

Sinus augmentation
A surgical procedure where bone
regenerative material is inserted into
the sinus to encourage the formation
of new bone to increase the height of
bone available to accommodate implant

Sterile conditions
Sterility in this context means the removal
of bacterial contamination. Realistically
we never manage to achieve absolute
sterility; however, we must always aim to
get as close as we can to a sterile working
environment. This will include the use of
autoclaves to sterilise all non-disposable
instruments, along with drapes and gowns
to isolate working surfaces and personnel.

This is a biocompatible metal from which
implants are manufactured. Titanium
has been used for medical procedures,
including hip replacements, for decades.

Treatment plan
A written detailed report on the patient’s
dental implant procedure including
proposed treatment timeframe and costs.

Abrasion: Mechanical wearing away of teeth by abnormal stresses. Can
result from abnormal toothbrushing habits or other abnormal stresses
on the teeth.

Abutment: The connecting element between an implant and a dental
crown, or prosthesis, which penetrates the gum tissue between the
jawbone and the mouth.

Abutment teeth: Natural teeth used to retain and support artificial
replacements for adjacent missing teeth.

Allograft: A transplant from one individual to a genetically non-identical

Alloplast: Graft of a relatively inert synthetic material, usually metal,
ceramic, or polymeric.

Alloys: Strong and relatively ductile, malleable metallic elements that can
be polished to a high luster, Primarily made of titanium.

Alveolar bone: The bone that surrounds and supports the roots of the

Alveolar mucosa: The loosely attached mucous membrane covering the
basal part of the jaw and continuing into the floor of the mouth
inwardly and into the cheek vestibule outwardly.

Anatomic crown: The part of the tooth covered by enamel.

Anodontia: No teeth at all present in the jaw.
Anterior: Refers to the teeth and tissues located towards the front of the

Antimicrobial: The chemical pharmaceutical substance used to reduce
bacteria in the oral cavity.

Apex: The tip of the root of a tooth or the tip of an implant.

Artificial crown: A dental replacement that restores the anatomy,
function, and esthetics of a natural tooth.
Artificial root: Term used to describe dental implants.

Asepsis: Prevention from contact with microorganisms.

Attachment: A mechanical device for the fixation, retention, and
stabilization of a dental prosthesis.

Bonded bridge (Maryland Bridge): Artificial replacement of one or
more teeth supported by unprepared natural adjacent teeth, cemented
or bonded to them.

Bridge: The artificial replacement of a missing tooth using the
combination of pontics and abutment crowns.

Calculus: A calcified form of dental plaque, which must be removed with
a professional cleaning,

Caps: see Crowns.

Caries: destruction of the enamel caused by bacteria; also known as

Cavity: see Caries.

Cementum: Hard connective tissue covering the tooth root.

Clasp: Metal hook or clamp that binds a removable partial denture to a
natural tooth.

Clinical crown: Part of the tooth that is visible above the gumline.

Complete dentures: Removable, total replacement of all teeth within one

Composite defect: Clinical condition characterized by missing teeth,
gum, and bone.

Congenitally: Hereditary anomaly, missing or altered from birth.

Cover screw: Device that covers and protects the top of the implant during the healing process.

Crown: Dental replacement restoring anatomy, function, and esthetics of a
natural crown.

Decay: see Caries.

Dental implant: A modern, osseointegrated device which is placed on or
within the bone associated with the oral cavity to provide support for
fixed or removable prosthetics.

Dentin: The part of the tooth that is beneath enamel and cementum.

Dentures: Removable (partial or complete) set of artificial teeth.

Diastema: Space between two teeth.

Enamel: Hard calcified tissue covering dentin of the crown of tooth.

Endentulous area: Toothless area.

Endosteal implant: A smooth and/or threaded implant that is placed in
the jawbone.

Esthetic zone: Visible intraoral structures defined by smile line.

Gingivitis: The initial stages of periodontal disease with inflammation of
the gums.

Graft: A piece of tissue or synthetic material placed in contact with tissueto repair a defect or supplement a deficiency.

Healing cap: Device that covers and protects the top of the implant during
the healing process.

High lip line: Maximum display of teeth and gums when smiling.

Immediate load: Implants that receive teeth on the day of implant

Implant: Biomechanical device made from titanium, surgically inserted
into the jawbone, to be used as support for artificial tooth.

Implant specialist: One who practices the art and science of implant

Implant dentistry: The area of dentistry concerned with the diagnosis,
design, and insertion of implant devices and dental restorations.

Implant denture: A denture that receives its stability and retention from a
dental implant.

Implant prosthodontics: The area of implant dentistry that concerns
itself with the construction and placement of fixed or removable
prosthesis on any implant device.

Impression: Mold made of the teeth and soft tissues,

Mandible: Lower jawbone.

Mandibular: Pertaining to the lower jaw.

Maxilla: Upper jawbone.

One-stage procedure: Procedure that leaves part of the neck of the
implant exposed above the gum immediately after implant placement.

Onlay graft: Use of solid blocks of bone to increase both the height and
width of existing bony defects.

Oral surgery: That area of dentistry comprising the diagnosis and
surgical treatment of diseases of the oral cavity and jaws.

Osseointegration: The biologic process of bone bonding to surface of
dental implants.

Palate: The hard and soft tissues forming the roof of the mouth, which
separates the oral and nasal cavities.

Partial denture or Partials: Removable replacement appliance for
missing teeth, generally held in place by clasps.

Periodontal pocket: The deepened space between the gum and tooth,
resulting from bone loss caused by periodontal disease.

Periodontitis: Inflammation that has spread into the underlying
connective tissue and bone surrounding the teeth.

Plaque: A film of sticky material containing saliva, food particles, andbacteria that attaches to the tooth surface both above and below the gumline. When left on the tooth it can promote gum disease and tooth

Pontic: Artificial replacement of an artificial tooth suspended by adjacent
supporting structures, either teeth or implants.

Post: Inserted into the root of an endodontically treated tooth for the
purpose of retaining a prosthetic crown.

Prosthetics: That area of dentistry that deals with problems relating to the
replacement of teeth and/or jaws.

Pulp: The chamber, containing nerves and blood vessels inside the crown
of a tooth.

Receptor sites: Areas in the bone or soft tissue that are prepared to
receive an implant.

Resorption: Loss of bone tissue associated with the natural aging process,
metabolic disturbances, or trauma.

Restoration: Any filling, inlay, crown, bridge, partial denture, or complete
denture that restores or replaces lost tooth structure, teeth or oral
tissues, A prosthesis,

Retread: Replacement of acrylic, composite, or denture teeth on the
original gold framework of an implant supported prosthesis.

Root: The part of the tooth below the crown, normally encased in the
jawbone. It is made up of dentin, includes the root canal, and is
covered by cementum.

Root canal: The hollow part of the tooth’s root. It runs from the tip of the
root into the pulp.

Sinus lift or elevation: Bone grafting procedure within the maxillary
sinus to enhance available bone volume for implant placement.

Splinting or splinted: The joining together of implants or teeth with
prosthetic replacements.

Standard of care: Minimal professional standard to which dentists are
accountable in their community,

Subgingiva: Below the gum line.

Sulcus: The cuff of gum tissue around a natural tooth or an implant.

Supragingiva: Above the gum tissue.

Suspensory fibers: Ligament that joins the roots to the bone.

Torque: The force measurement used in the tightening of screw joints,
such as abutments to implants.

Two-stage procedure: Submerging the implant below the gum tissue after
implant placement.

Veneer graft: Use of solid blocks of bone to widen existing bone ridges.

Virgin tooth: Perfectly healthy tooth that has not received any dental

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